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ⓘ 三皇五帝



三皇五帝
                                     

ⓘ 三皇五帝

三皇五帝 ,中華之古譚,先代之聖王也。

三皇 諸說:

  • 伏羲、神農、燧人(尚書大傳、禮緯含文嘉)
  • 伏羲、神農、祝融(白虎通)
  • 伏羲、神農、女媧(史记 三皇本紀之司馬貞所補、春秋運斗樞、春秋元命苞)
  • 伏羲、神農、黃帝(尚書 序、帝王世紀)
  • 伏羲、神農、共工(通鑒外紀)

五帝 諸說: 黃帝、帝顓頊、帝嚳、帝堯、帝舜。

  • 黃帝、顓頊、太昊(伏羲)、少昊、炎帝(禮記 月令、呂氏春秋、淮南子)
  • 青帝靈威仰,赤帝赤熛怒,白帝白招矩,黑帝協光紀,黃帝含樞紐。(史記正義)
  • 黃帝、庖犧(伏羲)、神農、堯、舜(戰國策)
  • 少昊、顓頊、嚳、堯、舜(尚書 序、白虎通義)
  • 黃帝、顓頊、嚳、堯、舜(史記 五帝本紀、世本、大戴禮記、易傳、禮記、春秋國語)
  • 黃帝、顓頊、嚳、堯、少昊(資治通鑒外紀)

自黃帝至舜、禹,姓同而國號異,以章明德。故黃帝謂有熊,帝顓頊謂高陽,帝嚳謂高辛,帝堯謂陶唐,帝舜謂有虞。帝禹為夏后而別氏,姒姓。契為商,子姓。棄為周,姬姓。

太史公曰:學者多稱五帝,尚矣。然尚書獨載堯以來;而百家言黃帝,其文不雅馴,薦紳先生難言之。孔子所傳宰予問五帝德及帝系姓,儒者或不傳。餘嘗西至空桐,北過涿鹿,東漸於海,南浮江淮矣,至長老皆各往往稱黃帝、堯、舜之處,風教固殊焉,總之不離古文者近是。予觀春秋、國語,其發明五帝德、帝系姓章矣,顧弟弗深考,其所表見皆不虛。書缺有間矣,其軼乃時時見於他說。非好學深思,心知其意,固難為淺見寡聞道也。

郭店楚簡唐虞之道載「六帝」說:「六帝興於古,咸由此也。」

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